Like previous explorations in this column, this author presupposes that the gamers in the subgroup of non-English speakers have little more in common with each other than they do with English-speaking gamers. Their only specific link is that they face certain difficulties when pursuing their hobby in an industry that is dominated by a group that can be inhospitable, though not necessarily deliberately. Problems of translation and a lack of fluency in English limit the breadth and quality of available translated gaming materials. This is the focus of this discussion, which is informed by an interview with French gaming enthusiast and entrepreneur, Leonidas Vesperini. For space reasons, the original interview is not printed here, but some of its most relevant ideas are.
At its most basic, non-English speaking gamers face a relative lack of translations. In some countries, games can survive and flourish only if they are translated into the native language. France is a good example. As Leo told me, sales figures can be as much as 80% better if a game is translated into French. The problem is that some companies don’t have the resources or interest to translate their games. This is especially true in countries with unique languages but small populations.
In a country where people tend to speak English fluently, such as the Netherlands or most of the Scandinavian countries, many gamers buy the original version rather than purchasing a poorer quality text in their own language. They then use English products in their games, translating where necessary. Often, native-language versions are created by those who are bilingual but not trained specifically in the skill of translation. These products are difficult to understand, riddled with errors, and frequently sound awkward to native as well as multi-lingual speakers. Gamers appreciate quality translations, especially of very technical games, but good translations are not as prevalent as many would like.
The prevalence of games unique to specific countries varies widely. Sweden and the Netherlands, for example, have games written specifically by natives of those countries. Sometimes these games are popular and do well, but often they do not, crowded out by more popular international titles. This is especially true in countries where English is spoken by nearly everyone. One significant exception to this is the success of the game Das Schwarze Auge (The Dark Eye) in Germany. In Germany, this game competes with and often eclipses the popularity of Dungeons & Dragons. Germans are among the most avid European gamers, so it is not surprising that they have their own unique native roleplaying game. As of the writing of this update, Das Schwarze Auge is in beta development for its 5th edition, and appears to be going as strong as ever,
One thing that is noteworthy is that outside games have flourished in Germany as well. Shadowrun, originally published by FASA, is now mostly published by FanPro, a German company. Shadowrun has a sizable number of novels published exclusively for the German audience. White Wolf’s Vampire: the Masquerade amd Vampire: the Requiem, as well as Call of Cthulhu and D&D, also have followings in Germany. In Poland, where frequency of English fluency is somewhat less than in Germany, translated games, especially Warhammer, are most popular.
Japan is notable, among Asian countries, for its translation of a significant number of RPG products, including titles from multiple editions of D&D, Call of Cthulu, GURPS, RuneQuest, Shadowrun, Warhammer, and World of Darkness. Several Japanese RPGs, including Sword World, Maid, and Double Cross have been translated into English. At least 6 major Japanese-language RPG magazines are published in varying frequencies.
Many of the gamers that prefer English versions like to keep their games in one language as much as possible, but some do not mind mixing in English terms. It may be impossible to avoid this, given that many of the technical terms in roleplaying games are difficult to translate. Some say that they even use English as a means to denote the speaking of a foreign language in their games. Thus, if the game is D&D, and the characters are speaking Elven, they use English as a way to indicate the language’s exotic nature. It adds a nuanced quality to the game. Others attempt to speak English when playing in English-speaking settings—a Cthulhu game set in 1930s New England, for example—to get a more authentic feel. Switching languages can also be used when language barrier is a significant issue in the setting. This gives bilingual players an advantage over players that speak only one language. The bilingual gamers can further explore what these language barriers are like and how they impact the game.
In a country where English is spoken, but not universally, games that are translated sell in drastically greater numbers. This is true of France and Brazil, as well as many Eastern European countries. In these countries, people often play older versions of the games because newer versions are not available for a variety of reasons—discontinued translation lines, lack of resources, and so on. If the population is great enough, in France for example, it might be worth translating a large number of games into the native language. If however, the population is smaller, this expense is probably not financially justified.
Fluency is intrinsically linked to translation; as discussed above, the popularity of English versus translated games depends greatly on volume and level of English fluency in a given country. In countries with less English fluency, younger gamers can become involved in the hobby only if they have older bilingual gamers to teach them, or if there are local language translations available. Many of these gamers learn English to use original texts. Many books are available in both print and electronic copy, but the vast majority of small press or even medium run books are only available in English. The biggest titles may have translations, but many companies will only print their marquis titles in translation. Thus, gamers must either learn English or get a translation.
In many places, these are two reasonable options, but in some, these may be serious detriments that prevent gaming development.
Along with this issue of availability comes the problem of discrimination. This issue ties our discussion to the notion of non-Anglo gamers as a discriminated minority in this hobby. On this issue, the non-English speaking gamers seem to be significantly more civilized than their Anglophone counterparts. Frequently, when members of a majority live their daily lives without thought of those who are different, they become suspicious or frightened by newcomers with unusual needs or interests. This is no different in language than it is with gender, sexual orientation, or physical ability. The multilingual gamers are used to dealing with people with other needs and abilities, so they are more acclimated to tolerance. For instance, in Finland most gaming conventions are conducted in Finnish, but the players usually have no problem playing in English if they have non-Finnish speaking visitors. They welcome this, given that their English is usually quite good. Anglo gamers, though, are not always as welcoming as their more multilingual and multiculturally aware counterparts.
Options for non-English speaking gamers are on the rise. Many roleplaying games are now being translated but require the player to read through complex rules that can be difficult for gamers fluent in English, let alone those with developing vocabularies. Immersion in English, or living in a country where being bilingual is almost universal, diminishes these problems, but they can be a big hassle if the gamer happens to live in a country where the study of English is not ubiquitous.
More visual games have an advantage in that the terms they use are often quite common in the genre and the gamers can rely on the images, tone of voice, and sound effects for cues. Though the gaming industry expands slowly, more and more products will be produced for gamers who don’t speak English, or who prefer to play in their native language. Many RPG companies, however, don’t consider translation, especially by trained people, to be worth their expense. While they aren’t intentionally sending a message of intolerance, they are essentially saying that the interests of these gamers are not worth it to them. In many cases, the population of gamers who would read the books is sizeable, but the companies still don’t translate their games. In other markets, the population of gamers may not be as financially lucrative, but a certain amount of advertising saturation could turn these markets into very lucrative playing fields.
Ultimately, this issue still remains one of individual choice, initiative, and cultural variability. The drive to translate, interest in gaming, and willingness to learn another language vary from one country to the next. Sometimes, these variations are as localized as small national regions, socioeconomic classes, or even certain gaming groups and clubs. It would be a sign of great faith and change in the industry if major English-dominated game companies began to take the interests of non-English gamers more to heart, but this is probably not going to happen in a dramatic way in the near future.
6 thoughts on “The Many Faces of Gaming: Gamers in the Non-English World”
The paragraph about discrimination doesn’t make sense. I speak four languages, and I am happy to speak in any of them. That doesn’t mean however that I am discriminating against anyone if I can’t speak their language.
If Finnish people can speak English and are happy to conduct their games in English to accommodate a non-Finnish speaker, that is very nice. But if a bunch of Anglophones are monolingual and can’t accommodate a foreign language even if they tried it isn’t discrimination. Referring to this kind of situation as discrimination is ludicrous, and undermines the entire article.
I think claiming discrimination of non-English speaking players is a bit hyperbolic. Take Germany, for example. The RPG market here is tiny. I’ve seen estimations between 500,000 to a million players in toto in a country with over 80 million inhabitants. The Dark Eye vastly overshadows every other game, even with a fiddly system (although I haven’t had a look at 5th edition) and a crummy setting.
Shadowrun and the German edition of Pathfinder along with other systems have carved out their niches and most of them seem to be doing OK, but that is also because German players tend to be pretty conservative. The backlash against D&D’s 4th edition was considerable and many players rather kept playing 3.5e (or even 3e) or switched over to Pathfinder. Additionally, only the 3 core rule books of 4e were translated and I don’t expect that there will be a German 5th edtion. Pathfinder has taken over a sizeable chunk of D&D’s former market share (which was not that big to begin with).
Publishing translated material on the German P&P RPG market beyond existing systems would simply be too much of a financial risk. This has nothing to do with discrimination.
The only company that could pull it off would be WotC, provided they were able to do it themselves. Right now, I don’t think any German publisher would touch the D&D license with the proverbial 10-foot-pole.
Btw, the article needs an update. The publishing situation – in Germany at least – has changed significantly since 2004.
“Along with this issue of availability comes the problem of discrimination. This issue ties our discussion to the notion of non-Anglo gamers as a discriminated minority in this hobby. On this issue, the non-English speaking gamers seem to be significantly more civilized than their Anglophone counterparts. Frequently, when members of a majority live their daily lives without thought of those who are different, they become suspicious or frightened by newcomers with unusual needs or interests. This is no different in language than it is with gender, sexual orientation, or physical ability.”
Oh. Do tell.
Gus’s what. I’m done here. I’ve been reading Kobold Press for almost two years, though I never comment. I’ve been especially partial to Richard Pett’s material. Good stuff, very useful, regardless of System or Edition.
But, I don’t care to be preached to when all I want is entertainment of the RPG/Geek variety. I was willing to consider the previous reprints of material as anomalous. But now, it looks like I am going to be preached at on a regular basis here. And, lo and behold, it’s typical Social Justice Warrior tripe. So now, one of my regular reading destinations is showing its colors. And it’s colors like to talk in a way that, once it gets rolling and talking about tolerance, belittles and judges me and people like me for my sincerely held beliefs.
Why couldn’t this just be about RPGs?
I’m done here.
A little perspective from the Middle East.
In Israel, translated games are ignored by grown-ups, but serve as gateway drugs for kids. My first two gaming books were in Hebrew; AD&D and Shadowrun. Since then, I didn’t buy a single RPG book in Hebrew – neither translated, nor original. As a rule, Israelis translate core rulebooks and a couple of adventures, plus and a great number of CYOA adventures and tie-in novels. The latter used to be very popular, but recently started disappearing from stores.
Hebrew translations are of diverse quality in terms of production and translation, but never poor. Games originally written in Hebrew never enjoyed significant success, to the best of my knowledge, though some were quiet interesting and creative.
The comments about language discrimination and intolerance do sound silly and forced to me. Since the lingua franca is English, foreigners need to learn English, not the other way around. This is an objective fact, not someone’s evil design.
That being said, my initial online experience with American gamers has been largely negative due to culture shock (which I believe was mutual). Specifically, Americans seem to be offended by absolutely everything and won’t even consider that other places can have different standards of what is or isn’t appropriate or polite. However, I’ve since adapted to their wild ways and enjoy communication with my overseas peers a great deal ;)
At the same time, Americans and Brazilians who came to our OWBN games, were very friendly and open-minded people and left a very good impression on myself and the rest of the players. Language wasn’t an issue since nearly all Israeli gamers speak English quite well.
I appreciate the feedback, good or bad. I agree that the section on Germany could use some additional info. Also, the more political/discrimination paragraph might detract from an overall discussion of the way games are published outside the U.S.
Thanks for chiming in about RPG publishing in the Middle East, Uri. I really appreciate the insider perspective from gamers all over the world.
I did play a game of D&D3 years ago in Shanghai, a bloke in my office had translated everything himself – amazing, considering his spoken English was almost non-existent. A group of us played a game in a crowded cafe, and he brought his stack of binders full of translated notes. From what I could gather, there’s a tiny core of very keen tabletop roleplayers in mainland China – but I’ve never seen a any rpg books for sale anywhere. I heard D&D has been published in Taiwan, but after a quick look on Taobao (the Chinese ebay) I could only find one 3.5 book in Chinese published by a Beijing company.
Those Shanghai roleplayers were a special group though – the DM I met because I used to share an office with the Chinese licensee of World of Warcraft (which was The9, at the time).
There’s at least one Games Workshop shop in China (also Shanghai), but just for the war games, not the rpgs.